Discussion on the harm of the hottest white pollut

2022-08-19
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Discussion on the harm of white pollution and the Countermeasures for the comprehensive utilization of waste plastics (IV)

according to the objective conditions or mechanisms that cause degradation, degradable plastics can be roughly divided into: biodegradable plastics, photodegradable plastics and complete photo biodegradable plastics

photodegradable plastic refers to the plastic that decomposes through photodegradation reaction; Biodegradable plastics refer to plastics that are naturally degraded by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae that exist in nature. As a great leap in plastic technology, these two kinds of new plastics have swept the world, but relevant studies have found that their degradation effect is not ideal, especially for the currently used starch filled photodegradable or biodegradable plastics, only the mixed starch has been degraded, but its physical and mechanical properties have been reduced, most of which have formed fragments or powders, or will form secondary white pollution

in view of this, the development of complete photo biodegradable plastics, so that plastics can be completely degraded under the joint action of light and microorganisms, can ensure the degradation effect, and will have a more positive significance for the whole biosphere

complete photo biodegradable plastics are another kind of new degradable plastics developed by combining the mechanism of photo degradable plastics with that of biodegradation. It has dual properties of light and biodegradation, and it can also be biodegradable while photodegradation. This method not only overcomes the defects of not easy photodegradation and incomplete degradation due to lack of light or insufficient illumination, but also overcomes the disadvantages of complex processing, high cost and difficult promotion of biodegradable plastics. Therefore, with its excellent properties, complete photo biodegradable plastics should be the development direction of degradable plastics

4.2.2 edible plastic

edible plastic is also a new type of green plastic

edible materials generally take natural edible substances that can be digested and absorbed by the human body, such as protein, starch, polysaccharides, plant fibers and other natural substances, as the basic raw materials, and through the interaction between different molecules, they can be made into a packaging film with porous complex structure that does not affect the food flavor. Edible packaging materials have the characteristics of rich and complete raw materials, edible, harmless or even beneficial to the human body, and certain strength, It has developed rapidly in recent years and has been widely used in the packaging of food and drugs

using edible plastics can receive double benefits of environmental protection and conservation. For example, edible packaging film containers made of soybeans, starch and potatoes have mature processing technology and practical application. It can be made into biodegradable plastic film, extruded to make film coating for small food, and can also be made into water-proof and oil-proof beverage cups and fast food boxes. An Australian company that manufactures food containers has made an edible container for potato chips. After eating the potato chips, people can also eat the container beautifully, killing two birds with one stone and the sensor and shell parts of the motor

4.3 alternative mode -- replace plastic with "paper"

with the increasingly serious "white pollution", people are trying to find an alternative product, and the replacement of plastic with "paper" came into being

relatively speaking, paper is an environment-friendly material, which has the characteristics of light weight, low cost and easy recycling of waste. Paper can also be divided into raw pulp paper and recycled paper. Comparatively speaking, using recycled paper as packaging material instead of plastic is superior to raw pulp paper in terms of energy consumption and cost. Therefore, under the condition that China's per capita forest ownership is far lower than the world average, making full use of recycled paper as packaging material is a necessary choice

in addition, the technology of pulp molded tableware is also mature, which has the conditions for comprehensive promotion and application, because this kind of tableware is produced by pulp molding, that is, three-dimensional papermaking technology, which is of overall structure and good strength. At the same time, it also has shortcomings, such as paper molded tableware is easy to leak oil and water. In addition, due to the limitations of raw materials, energy consumption, technology and other factors, the price of more than 0.30 yuan each has hindered its wide promotion

however, pulp molded tableware is still a substitute product worthy of research and application. The development of pulp molded tableware that is moisture-proof, corrosion-resistant, oxidation-resistant, acid and alkali resistant and bactericidal should be its development direction

4.4 mandatory mode - policies and regulations

in the work of white pollution control, the government should take the initiative to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the control by formulating corresponding regulations and policies

4.4.1 tax policy

establish a set of restraint mechanism that can not only restrict the production of plastic shopping bags, but also control the use of plastic shopping bags, that is, not only to impose a "plastic use tax" on users, but also to impose a "plastic bag pollution control tax" on manufacturers, and use the funds collected by the electronic universal experimental machine with no pollution and low noise for the investment of environmental protection

4.4.2 support policies

introduce specific policies to support the development of environmental friendly tableware, reduce or even cancel the taxes of producers engaged in environmental friendly tableware, which can reduce costs accordingly; For manufacturers of non degradable plastics, by controlling their total production, we can reduce the output of non degradable plastics from the source

4.4.3 publicity and education activities

the severity of white pollution is related to citizens' weak awareness of environmental protection to a certain extent. Because of how to choose a suitable pressure testing machine, one day can be designated as "anti day", and we should use media, school education and other forms to widely publicize the causes and hazards of white pollution, so as to help people understand which packaging is conducive to environmental protection and how to use waste

4.5 other

4.5.1 plastic manufacturers and consumer goods producers:

1) improve production processes, strictly control the source of raw materials, and practically carry out safety, environmental protection, reliability and health-friendly production from the interests of consumers

2) pay attention to the research and development of environment-friendly materials and increase the development of degradable plastics

3) improve packaging design, save packaging materials, and reform the design criteria of excessive packaging of goods

lightweight packaging materials

the packaging container shall be provided with material marks for recycling

4) we should actively promote green packaging technology, starting with the use of green packaging materials, reduce the discharge of packaging waste, strengthen recycling, and pay attention to environmental protection until the final waste treatment, so as to realize the sustainable development of packaging technology

5) the shopping market should provide customers with free paper bags, or provide paid plastic bag services

4.5.2 consumers:

recently, this kind of copper alloy functional new materials has been successfully developed by 1 private enterprise in Sichuan. 1) strengthen their awareness of environmental protection, actively respond to the call of the state, try to use, do not use or reuse disposable plastic products as little as possible, and consciously recycle according to the requirements of waste classification

2) green consumption, develop good living habits, and don't use plastic bags to contain hot food

3) support the use of green environmental protection materials and actively participate in the cause of environmental protection

5. Conclusion

through personal social investigation and practice, we feel that there is a long way to go in the cause of environmental protection. It is far from enough to rely on the unilateral efforts of the government. The real elimination of white pollution requires the joint efforts of the whole society. Without the conscious participation of the public, any environmental protection measures are difficult to achieve. Let's join hands to contribute our part to the cause of environmental protection and build a green home

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source: School of environment and resources, Jilin University

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